- A sophisticated antimissile missile system designed to intercept ground-to-ground ballistic missiles developed jointly by Israel and the United States beginning in the mid-1980s. Interest in the Arrow grew significantly after Iraqi Scud missile attacks during the Persian Gulf War (1991) drew attention to gaps in Israel's missile defense capabilities. Its radar system is designed to track missiles and guide the antimissile missile at a speed of nearly 3 kilometers (2 miles) per second to within 4 meters (13 feet) of an incoming target. The Arrow is designed to intercept missiles between 10 kilometers and 40 kilometers above the ground.In August 1997, a test of the Arrow had to be aborted and the missile destroyed in midflight after a malfunction caused it to deviate off course. The U.S. decision to fund development of a third battery of Arrow missiles for Israel was formalized in June 1998. In August 1998, Israel approved the accelerated development of the Arrow against the background of Iran's testing of a new ballistic missile system. The Arrow's three components—the missile, the radar system (for tracking incoming missiles), and the fire control system— were successfully tested together for the first time on 14 September 1998. The first operational Arrow missile was transferred from Israel Aircraft Industries to the headquarters of the Defense Ministry's Homa (Wall) Project on 29 November 1998. The Arrow system is considered to be one of the cornerstones of Israel's strategic defense against the threat of new generations of long-range ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction being developed or acquired by Iran and other regional adversaries.
Historical Dictionary of Israel. Bernard Reich David H. Goldberg. Edited by Jon Woronoff..
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